Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma completely resected at diagnosis: The European paediatric Soft tissue sarcoma Study Group RMS2005 experience

Bergeron C, Jenney M, De Corti F, Gallego S, Merks JHM, Glosli H, Ferrari A, Ranchère-Vince D, De Salvo GL, Zanetti I, Chisholm J, Minard-Colin V, Rogers T, Bisogno G. on behalf of the European paediatric Soft tissue sarcoma Study Group (EpSSG). European Journal of Cancer, Vol 146, March 2021, 21-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.12.025

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common form of soft tissue sarcoma in children. We report the results of the European paediatric Soft tissue sarcoma Study Group (EpSSG) RMS 2005 study, which prospectively evaluated the reduction of chemotherapy in patients with embryonal RMS (ERMS) after initial surgery.

Between October 2005 and December 2016, all patients with localised ERMS with an initial microscopically complete resection (IRS group I) with lymph node-negative (N0) were prospectively enrolled in the low-risk (n = 70, subgroup A; age < 10 years and tumour size ≤ 5 cm) or standard-risk group (n = 108, subgroup B; age ≥ 10 years or tumour size > 5 cm. Subgroup A received 8 courses of vincristine and dactinomycin (VA) for 22 weeks; subgroup B received 4 courses of VA with ifosfamide (IVA) and 5 courses of VA for 25 weeks.

The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 90.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 85.0–94.4) and 95.7% (95% CI: 90.5–98.1), respectively (n = 178). The EFS and OS were 95.5% (95% CI: 86.8–98.5) and 100% (subgroupA), and 87.8% (95% CI: 79.3–93.0) and 93.0% (95% CI: 84.8–96.8)(subgroup B), respectively. Bearman stage 2 veno-occlusive disease (VOD) occurred in 4 very young patients.

VA treatment for 8 courses was effective and well tolerated by the subgroup of patients with low-risk ERMS (group A). Four courses of IVA and 5 courses of VA instead of 9 courses of IVA also has very good results. Careful monitoring for liver toxicity is important in very young patients.

European union drug regulating authorities clinical trials EUDRACT No. 2005-000217-35.

RhabdomyosarcomaSoft tissue sarcomaChildhood cancer